Lower Limb Articulations/Movements

Hip Joint

Flexion

Bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the thigh or top of the pelvis forward.

  • Iliopsoas
  • Tensor fasciae latae
  • Rectus femoris
  • Sartorius
  • Adductor longus
  • Adductor brevis
  • Pectineus

Extension

Straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle; moving the thigh or top of the pelvis backward.

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Semitendiunosus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Biceps femoris (long head)
  • Adductor magnus (ischial fibers)

Adduction

Medial movement toward the midline of the body; moving the thigh inward with hip straight.

  • Adductors
  • Pectineus
  • Gracilis
  • Gluteus maximus, lower fibers

Abduction

Lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the thigh outward with hip straight.

  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus
  • Tensor fasciae latae
  • Sartorius

Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation)

Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone toward the center of the body; turning the thigh or pelvis inward.

  • Tensor fasciae latae
  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus, anteriorfibers

Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)

Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone away from the center of the body; turning the thigh or pelvis outward.

  • Gemellus superior
  • Gemellus inferior
  • Obturator internus
  • Obturator externus
  • Quadratus femoris
  • Piriformis
  • Gluteus maximus
  • Sartorius
  • Gluteus medius, posterior fibers

Knee Joint

Flexion

Bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the lower leg toward the back of the thigh.

  • Hamstrings
  • Gracilis
  • Sartorius
  • Popliteus
  • Gastrocnemius

Extension

Straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle; moving the lower leg away from the back of the thigh.

  • Quadriceps femoris

Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation)

Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone toward the center of the body; with the knee bent, turning the lower leg inward.

  • Popliteus
  • Semimembranosus
  • Semitendinosus
  • Sartorius
  • Gracilis

Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)

Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone away from the center of the body; with the knee bent, turning the lower leg outward.

  • Biceps femoris

Ankle Joint

Plantar Flexion

Extension of the ankle resulting in the sole (plantar surface of the foot) moving away from the body.

  • Gastrocnemius
  • Soleus
  • Plantaris
  • Tibialis posterior
  • Flexor hallucis posterior
  • Flexor digitorium longus

Dorsal Flexion

Flexion of the ankle resulting in the top of the foot (dorsum) moving toward the body.

  • Tibialis anterior
  • Extension digitorum longus
  • Extensor hallucis longus
  • Peroneus tertius

Intertarsal Joint

Inversion (Supination)

Turning the foot medially resulting in the sole moving inward.

  • Tibialis anterior
  • Tibialis posterior

Eversion (Pronation)

Turning the foot laterally resulting in the sole moving outward.

  • Peroneus longus
  • Peroneus brevis
  • Peroneus tertius

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