Cranial Nerves Summary

 

 

Name

Components

Cranial Exit

Functions

Region entered

Main functions

Type

I

Olfactory

              

Cribriform plate

(ethmoidal bone)

Smell from nasal mucosa

nasal cavity

smell

Some

sensory

II

Optic

             

Optic canal

Vision from Retina

orbit

 

Say

sensory

III

Oculomotor

                 

Optic canal

Superio, Inferior, Medial  rectus mm

Inferior oblique m

Sphincter papillae m./Ciliary m.

 

orbit

eyelid & eyeball movement

Marry

 

motor

IV

Trochlear

              

 

Superior oblique m.

orbit

Eyes ¯

Money

motor

V

Trigeminal

V1

 Ophtalmic

Superior orbital fissure

skin and mucosa in region at and above orbit

 

orbit

-Face and mouth touch and pain

 

 

 

 

-Chewing

But

both

V2

 Maxillary

Foramen rotundum

skin and mucosa in region from orbit to mouth

 

pterygopala-tine fossa

V3

Mandibular

Foramen ovale

“My A$$ Meets The Toilet”

“Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists”

(skin and mucosa from region at and below the mouth)

 

Infra-temporal fossa

VI

Abducent

             

Superior orbital fissure

Lateral rectus

orbit

eyeball movement

My

motor

VII

Facial

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

stylomastoid foramen

“Ten zebras Bough My Car”

(muscles of facial expression:
stapedius/stylohyoid/mylohyoid/posterior digastric)

 

 

 

 

 

 

temporal bone

-Facial expression

 

-Secretion of tears & saliva

 

Brother

both

             

petrotympanic fissure

taste, anterior 2/3 tongue

             

petrotympanic fissure

parasympathetic: submandibular ganglia (innervates submandibular and sublingual glands)

             

pterygoid canal

parasympathetic to: pterygopalatine ganglia (innervates lacrimal gland, nasal glands, and palatine glands)

VIII

Vestibulo-

cohlear

             

Internal acoustic meatus

Semicircular ducts, utricle, saccule

Spiral organ

temporal bone

Balance

Says

motor

IX

Glosso-

pharyngeal

 

               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jugular foramen

 

Stylopharynges muscle

ParaSYM to parotid gland

Parotid gland; carotid body/sinus; pharynx; mid.ear

Taste from posterior 1/3 tongue

Cutaneous sens. external ear

 

 

neck

-Senses carotid blood P

 

-Taste

Big

Both

X

Vagus

               

 

Constrictors of pharynx; intrinsic mm of larynx; striated m in superior 2/3 of esophagus;

ParaSYM to smooth mm trachea; bronchi; digestive; cardiac muscle

Base of tongue; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchi; heart; esophagus; stomach; intestine

Taste from epiglottis, palate

auricle, external auditory meatus

 


neck

 

(travels within the carotid sheath, posterior to IJV and CCA)

-Senses aortic blood P

-Taste

-Heart beat rate

-GI peristalsis

-Sweating

Brains

both

XI

Accessory

Cranial root

Muscles of soft palate; pharynx;  larynx

neck

Swallow-ing

 

Shoulder elevation

Matter

Motor

Spinal root

Sternocleidomastoid

Trapezius

 

XII

Hypoglossal

             

 

Hypoglossal canal

Muscles of tongue

(except palatoglossus)

neck

(C1 travels with it)

Tongue

Most

motor

m-muscle; mm-muscles;

IJV- external jugular vein; CCA - common carotid artery

 

Motor Components of Cranial Nerves

Somatic Motor

 

               

Orbit and tongue muscles (muscles that are not derived from pharyngeal arches)

Branchial Motor

 

               

Muscles of face, larynx, pharynx muscles (muscles that are derived from pharyngeal arches)

Visceral Motor

 

               

Smooth muscles, glands

 

Sensory Components of Cranial Nerves

General Sensory

 

               

General sensation such as touch, pain

Usually  CONSCIOUS sensations

Visceral Sensory

 

               

Sensation from glands, organs         

Usually  UNCONSIOUS sensations

Special Sensory

 

               

Vision, smell, olfaction, hearing, balance

 

 

Major branches of cranial nerves

V1

General Sensory Branches

 

 

A. Infratrochlear
B. Anterior Ethmoid
C. Posterior Ethmoid
D. Lacrimal
E. Supraorbital
F. Supratrochlear
G. Nasociliary

 

V2

General Sensory Branches

 

 

A. Zygoticaticotemporal
B. Zygomaticofacial
C. Post. Sup. Alveolar Brs
D. Nasopalatine
E. Greater Palatine
F. Lesser Palatine
G. Mid. & Ant. Alveolar Brs
H. Infraorbital

 

V3

General Sensory Branches

Branchial Motor Branches

 

“Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists

Buccal , Auriculotemporal, Inferior alveolar, Lingual

“My A$$ Meets The Toilet”

Mylohyoid, Anterior digastric, Muscles of Mastication, Tensor veli palatini, Tensor tympani

VII

Somatic Motor Branches

Visceral Motor Branches

 

Ten Zebras Bough My Car:

Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Masseteric, Cervical

SS practiced NLP

Submandibular, Sublingual,

Nasal, Lacrimal, Palantine glands


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